题目：Urban climate modeling: from simulation to understanding
With more than 50% of the global population now living in cities, urban areas represent a critical nexus of water, energy, and health challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. A better understanding of the urban climate within the context of global environmental change plays a key role in tackling these challenges. Over the past two decades, a variety of urban land surface models of different complexities have been proposed to capture the unique characteristics of urban landscapes and their influences on urban-atmosphere interactions, and are gradually implemented in weather, climate, and earth system models. These models provide great platforms for predicting weather and climate in urban environments, assessing adaptation and mitigation strategies, and investigating the influences of human activities. In this presentation, I will discuss some of the lessons I learned from developing, implementing, and improving urban land surface models in weather prediction and global earth system models, and more importantly, the challenges in urban climate modeling. I will also discuss gaps between simulation and understanding in urban climate modeling, and propose new methods to fill such gaps.